4 Bhayabherava Sutta

Fear and Dread

(См. русский перевод и комментарий Бханте Вималарамси, а также другие сутты Мадджхима Никаи)

1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv­ing at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.

2. Then the brahmin Janussoni56 went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and ami­able talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said: «Master Gotama, when clansmen have gone forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in Master Gotama, do they have Master Gotama for their leader, their helper, and their guide? And do these people follow the example of Master Gotama?»57

«That is so, brahmin, that is so. When clansmen have gone forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in me, they have me for their leader, their helper, and their guide. And these people follow my example.»

«But, Master Gotama, remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to practise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if hd has no concentration.» [17]

«That is so, brahmin, that is so. Remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to prac­tise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.

3. «Before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unen­lightened Bodhisatta, I too considered thus: ‘Remote jungle-thick­et resting places in the forest are hard to endure…the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.’

4. «I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins unpuri­fied in bodily conduct resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their unpurified bodily conduct these good recluses and brahmins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jun gle-thicket resting places in the forest unpurified in bodily con­duct. I am purified in bodily conduct. I resort to remote jungle- thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with bodily conduct purified.’ Seeing in myself this purity of bodily conduct, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.

5-7. «I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins unpu­rified in verbal conduct…unpurified in mental conduct…unpuri­fied in livelihood resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest…they evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But…I am purified in livelihood. I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with livelihood puri­fied.’ Seeing in myself this purity of livelihood, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.

8. «I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins who are covetous and full of lust.. .1 am uncovetous…’ [18]

9. «‘…with a mind of ill will and intentions of hate…I have a mind of loving-kindness…’

10. «‘…overcome by sloth and torpor…I am without sloth and torpor…’

11. «‘…overcome with restless and unpeaceful mind…I have a peaceful mind…’

12. «‘…uncertain and doubting…I have gone beyond doubt…’

13. ‘»[19]… given to self-praise and disparagement of others.. .1 am not given to self-praise and disparagement of others…’

14. ‘».. .subject to alarm and terror…1 am free from trepidation…’

15. «‘…desirous of gain, honour, and renown…I have few wishes…’

16. …lazy and wanting in energy.. .1 am energetic…’

17. ‘»…[20] unmindful and not fully aware…I am established in mindfulness…’

18. «‘…unconcentrated and with straying minds…I am pos­sessed of concentration…’

19. «I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins devoid of wisdom, drivellers, resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their being devoid of wisdom and drivellers these good recluses and brah­mins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest devoid of wis­dom, a driveller. I am possessed of wisdom.58 I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones possessed of wisdom.’ Seeing in myself this possession of wisdom, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.

20. «I considered thus: ‘There are the specially auspicious nights of the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fort­night.59 Now what if, on such nights as these, I were to dwell in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, wood­land shrines, and tree shrines? Perhaps I might encounter that fear and dread.’ And later, on such specially auspicious nights as the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fortnight, I dwelt in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, woodland shrines, and tree shrines. And while I dwelt there, a wild animal would come up to me, or a peacock [21] would knock off a branch, or the wind would rustle the leaves. I thought: ‘What now if this is the fear and dread coming?’ I thought: ‘Why do I dwell always expecting fear and dread? What if I subdue that fear and dread while keeping the same posture that I am in when it comes upon me?’60

«While I walked, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither stood nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I stood, the fear and dread came upon me; I nei­ther walked nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I sat, the fear and dread came upon me; I nei­ther walked nor stood nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I lay down, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor stood nor sat down till I had subdued that fear and dread.

21. «There are, brahmin’, some recluses and brahmins who perceive day when it is night and night when it is day. I say that on their part this is an abiding in delusion. But I perceive night when it is night and day when it is day. Rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: ‘A being not subject to delusion has appeared in the world for the welfare and happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and hap­piness of gods and humans/ it is of me indeed that rightly speaking this should be said.

22. «Tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was tranquil and untrou­bled, my mind concentrated and unified.61

23. «Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.62

24. «With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I entered upon and abided in the second jhana, which has self­confidence and singleness of mind [22] without applied and sus­tained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of concentration.

25. «With the fading away as well of rapture, I abided in equa­nimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, I entered upon and abided in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abid­ing who has equanimity and is mindful.’

26. «With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.

27. «When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.63 I recollected my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hun­dred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past lives.

28. «This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

29. «When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings.64 With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings pass­ing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reap­peared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well-conducted in body, [23] speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.

30. «This was the second true knowledge attained by me in the second watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

31. «When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the way lead­ing to the cessation of suffering.’ I directly knew as it actually is: ‘These are the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’65

32. «When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it was liberated, there came the knowl­edge: ‘It is liberated.’66 I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’67

33. «This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

34. «Now, brahmin, it might be that you think: ‘Perhaps the recluse Gotama is not free from lust, hate, and delusion even today, which is why he still resorts to remote jungle-thicket rest­ing places in the forest.’ But you should not think thus. It is because I see two benefits that I still resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest: I see a pleasant abiding for myself here and now, and I have compassion for future generations.»68

35. «Indeed, it is because Master Gotama is an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One, that he has compassion for future generations. [24] Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.»


Notes:

56 MA says that Janussoni was not a given name but an honorific title meaning «royal chaplain» (purohita) bestowed on him by the king. MN 27 is also addressed to the brahmin Janussoni.

57 Bhoto Gotamassa sa janata ditthanugatim apajjati. Nm ren­ders: «Do these people follow the implications of Master Gotama’s view?» And Horner: «These people emulate the views of the honoured Gotama» (MLS 1:22). MA, too, glosses: «These people have the same view, opinion, outlook as Master Gotama.» However, it makes much better sense in this context to read dittha not as a sandhi form of ditthi, but as the past participle, and to take this phrase as meaning «following what they have seen of him,» i.e., his example. This meaning is clearly required by the phrase in its appearances at SN ii.203, AN i.126, AN iii.108, 251, 422.

58 Nm originally had rendered this phrase as «perfect in understanding,» and the corresponding phrase in the preceding section as «perfect in concentration.» However, since it seems inappropriate to ascribe perfec­tion in samadhi and panna to the Bodhisatta prior to his enlightenment, I have chosen to render the suffix sam- panna throughout as «possessed of.» MA explains that this is neither the wisdom of insight nor of the path, but the wisdom that defines the nature of its object (iarammanavavatthanapanna).

59 The Indian year, according to the ancient system inherit­ed by Buddhism, is divided into three seasons — the cold season, the hot season, and the rainy season — each last­ing for four months. The four months are subdivided into eight fortnights (pakkha), the third and the seventh containing fourteen days and the others fifteen days. Within each fortnight, the nights of the full moon and the new moon (either the fourteenth or fifteenth) and the night of the half-moon (the eighth) are regarded as espe­cially auspicious. Within Buddhism these days become the Uposatha, the days of religious observance. On the full moon and new moon days the bhikkhus recite their code of precepts and lay people visit the monasteries to listen to sermons and to practise meditation.

60 The four postures (iriyapatha) often mentioned in the Bud­dhist texts are walking, standing, sitting, and lying down.

61 Beginning with this section, the Buddha shows the course of practice that led him to the peak of non-delusion.

62 MA says that the Bodhisatta developed the four jhanas using mindfulness of breathing as his meditation subject.

63 Explained in detail at Vsm XIII, 13-71.

64 Explained in detail at Vsm Х1П, 72-101.

65 MA: Having shown the Four Noble Truths in their own nature (that is, in terms of suffering), the passage on the taints is stated to show them indirectly by way of the defilements.

66 According to MA, the phrase «When I knew and saw thus» refers to insight and the path, which reaches its cli­max in the path of arahantship; the phrase «my mind was liberated» shows the moment of the fruit; and the phrase «there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated'» shows reviewing knowledge (see Vsm XXII, 20-21), as does the next sentence beginning «I directly knew.»

67 This is the stock canonical announcement of final knowl­edge or arahantship. MA explains that the statement «Birth is destroyed» means that any type of birth that might have arisen if the path had not been developed has been rendered incapable of arising by the development of the path. The «holy life» that has been lived is the holy life of the path (maggabrahmacariya). The phrase «what had to be done has been done» (katarh karanlyam) indi­cates that the four tasks of the noble path — fully under­standing suffering, abandoning its origin, realising its cessation, and developing the path — have now all been completed for each of the four supramundane paths. The fourth phrase, naparam itthattaya, is glossed by MA thus: «Now there is no need for me to develop the path again for ‘such a state/ i.e., for the sixteenfold function (of the path) or for the destruction of the defilements. Or alter­natively: after ‘such a state/ i.e., the continuum of aggre­gates now occurring, there is no further continuum of aggregates for me. These five aggregates, having been fully understood, stand like trees that are cut at the root. With the cessation of the last consciousness, they will be extinguished like a fire without fuel.» I have opted for the second of these interpretations, but take itthattaya as a dative. The word, which literally means «the state of this» or «the state of thus,» implies manifestation in a concrete state of existence. Nm had rendered: «There is no more of this beyond.»

68 MA: He has «compassion for future generations» insofar as later generations of monks, seeing that the Buddha resort’ ed to forest dwellings, will follow his example and thus hasten their progress towards making an end of suffering.

 

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