3 Dhammadayada Sutta

Heirs in Dhamma

(См. также русский перевод и комментарий Бханте Вималарамси, а также другие сутты Мадджхима Никая)

1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv­ing in SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: «Bhikkhus.»51 — «Venerable sir,» they replied. The Blessed One said this:

2. «Bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?’ If you are my heirs in material things, not my heirs in Dhamma, you will be reproached thus: «The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in material things, not as heirs in Dhamma’; and I will be reproached thus: ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in material things, not as his heirs in Dhamma.’

«If you are my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things, you will not be reproached [as it will be said]: ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma, not as his heirs in material things’; and I will not be reproached [as it will be said]: ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma, not as his heirs in material things.’ Therefore, bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?’

3. «Now, bhikkhus, suppose that I had eaten, refused more food, had my fill, finished, had enough, had what I needed, and some almsfood was left over to be thrown away. Then two bhikkhus arrived [13] hungry and weak, and I told them: ‘Bhikkhus, I have eaten…had what I needed, but there is this almsfood of mine left over to be thrown away. Eat if you like; if you do not eat then I shall throw it away where there is no greenery or drop it into water where there is no life.’ Then one bhikkhu thought: ‘The Blessed One has eaten…had what he needed, but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to be thrown away; if we do not eat it the Blessed One will throw it away.. .But this has been said by the Blessed One: «Bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things.» Now this almsfood is one of the material things. Suppose that instead of eating this almsfood I pass the night and day hungry and weak.’ And instead of eating that almsfood he passed that night and day hungry and weak. Then the second bhikkhu thought: ‘The Blessed One has eaten.. .had what he needed, but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to be thrown away.. .Suppose that I eat this almsfood and pass the night and day neither hungry nor weak.’ And after eating that almsfood he passed the night and day neither hungry nor weak. Now although that bhikkhu by eating that almsfood passed the night and day neither hungry nor weak, yet the first bhikkhu is more to be respected and com­mended by me. Why is that? Because that will for long conduce to his fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, easy support, and arousal of energy.52 Therefore, bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?'»

4. That is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling. Soon after he had left, the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: «Friends, bhikkhus.» — «Friend,» they replied. [14] The venerable Sariputta said this:

5. «Friends, in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded not train in seclusion? And in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion?»

«Indeed, friend, we would come from far away to learn from the venerable Sariputta the meaning of this statement. It would be good if the venerable Sariputta would explain the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him the bhikkhus will remember it.»

«Then, friends, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.»

«Yes, friend,» the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Sariputta said this:

6. «Friends, in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded not train in seclusion? Here disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded do not train in seclusion; they do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion.

«In this the elder bhikkhus are to be blamed for three rea­sons.53 As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be blamed for this third reason. The elder bhikkhus are to be blamed for these three reasons.

«In this the middle bhikkhus are to be blamed for three rea­sons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be blamed for this third reason. The middle bhikkhus are to be blamed for these three reasons.

«In this the new bhikkhus are to be blamed for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and care­less, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be blamed for this third reason. The new bhikkhus are to be blamed for these three reasons.

«It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded do not train in seclusion.

7. «In what way, friends, do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded [15] train in seclusion? Here disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion; they abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are not luxurious and careless, they are keen to avoid backsliding, and are leaders in seclusion.

«In this the elder bhikkhus are to be commended for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first rea­son. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third reason. The elder bhikkhus are to be commended for these three reasons.

«In this the middle bhikkhus are to be commended for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first rea­son. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxu­rious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third reason. The middle bhikkhus are to be commended for these three reasons.

«In this the new bhikkhus are to be commended for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first rea­son. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third reason. The new bhikkhus are to be commended for these three reasons.

«It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion.

8. «Friends, the evil herein is greed and hate.54 There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of greed and hate, giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowl­edge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. This is the Middle Way giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.55

9-15. «The evil herein is anger and revenge…contempt and a domineering attitude.. .envy and avarice…deceit and fraud.. .ob­stinacy [16] and presumption…conceit and arrogance…vanity and negligence. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of vanity and negligence, giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. This is the Middle Way giving vision, giv­ing knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.»

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta’s words.


Notes:

51 MA: The Buddha delivered this sutta because many bhikkhus were becoming elated over the gains and hon­our accruing to the Sangha, to the neglect of their spiritu­al training. The Buddha obviously could not lay down a training rule prohibiting the use of the requisites, but he wanted to show the practice of the heirs in Dhamma to those bhikkhus who were earnestly desirous of training.

52 MA explains that these five qualities gradually fulfil all the stages of the practice culminating in arahantship.

53 Elder bhikkhus (thera) are those with more than ten rainy seasons since ordination (upasampada); middle bhikkhus have between five and nine rains; new bhikkhus less than five rains.

54 The evil qualities mentioned here, and in the sections that follow, are introduced to show the states referred to above (§6) by the statement: «They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon.» They are also the fac­tors that induce a bhikkhu to become an heir of material things rather than an heir of Dhamma. In MN 7.3 the same sixteen qualities, with «ill will» substituted for «hate,» are referred to as «the imperfections that defile the mind» (cittass’ upakkilesa).

55 The Noble Eightfold Path is introduced here to show the practice that makes one an «heir in Dhamma.» The antithesis between the defilements and the path restates, from a new angle, the contrast between «heirs in material things» and «heirs in Dhamma» with which the Buddha had opened the sutta.

Pin It on Pinterest

X
Поделиться